boiling water reactor parts

As far as Nuclear reactors go, their solution offers several key advantages: The later part requires some further explanation. Similarly, in 2004 and 2005, two sets of reactor internal equipment, specifically reactor steam dryers, were produced for two units of the Finnish Olkiluoto BWR nuclear power plant. Boiling Water Reactor Simulator. They target remote locations such as mines. I will however focus on the SSR-W which they intend to put into operation first. 23/02 . The power reactors can be further classified into boiling water reactor, pressurised water reactor, pressurised heavy water reactor and fast breeder reactor depending upon the choice of the moderator and the coolant used. What you get out of this is similar advantages as Moltex. Hence the problem at Fukushima, where the power driving the pumps was lost would not cause problems in this design. There is no volatile material which can be pushed out far as dispersed as fallout over a large area as happened with Chernobyl. How do we make nuclear fission happen and sustain it? The diagram is mainly about the coolant used. What do I mean by coolant? I am not expert on this field but based on various criticisms I have read of the NuScale reactor, it may not be able to cause circulation to happen purely without pumps. Boiling water reactors must use enriched uranium as their nuclear fuel, due to their use of light water. Training Course Series No. The tool exerts an upward pulling force on stuck retainers to return them to the locking position around the nut. If you fill water with sulfuric acid, you can create hydrogen by simply heating up the water. This is hard to get out of a LWR reactor as they cannot be operated at this high temperature. However that wait may well be worth it as these reactors offer a host of advantages not found in LWR reactors: There are many ways of making a Molten Salt Reactor (MSR) but most of them will work roughly as shown in the schematic below. The KerenaTM reactor is areva’s generation iii+bWr (boiling Water reactor). They use well proven Molten Salt Reactor design and don’t try to come up with anything unproven or new. You need to get this heat away from the core and somehow move it into a steam turbine to generate power. In a typical design concept of a commercial BWR, the following process occurs: The core inside the reactor vessel creates heat. This also causes the water in the main loop to cool and thus move downwards, getting back into the reactor core where it is heated up again. Molten Salt and Very High Temperature Reactors will due to the simplicity of their design compared to LWR reactors get major cost reductions. Westinghouse is the world leader in delivering Pressurized Water Reactor (PWR) nuclear fuel. The book is divided into three parts with part one reviewing the latest developments in the use of reference electrode technology in both pressurised water and boiling water reactors. Fermi Energia does a comparison of these two reactors as it considers them good candidates for any country that wants to deploy SMRs quickly. We will look at two different reactors which are close to getting into the market which is the NuScale and the Hitachi BWRX-300. 4 Reactor water purity transients (Robert Cowan) 4-1 5 Surveillance Programs (Wilfried Rühle) 5-1 5.1 NWC plants 5-1 5.1.1 Reactor water 5-3 5.1.2 Feed water 5-4 5.1.3 Main condensate 5-4 5.1.4 Main steam 5-6 5.1.5 Auxiliary systems 5-6 6 References 6-1 Nomenclature Unit conversion Framatome said the fuel elements irradiated in the Gösgen plant will be further examined to confirm behaviour in real operating conditions. We could divide water based reactors into: Light water in this context means regular water. A fluoride salt will contain the fuel itself. This freeze plug could unfreeze and open up in two cases: In either case salt with the fuel will pour into emergency storage tanks below. That is roughly what cheap coal power costs. Why is that useful? In 1999, we supplied two sets of modernized boiling water reactor (BWR) internal parts for the Swedish Forsmark nuclear power plant. In both types, water is converted to steam, and then recycled back into water by a part called the condenser, to be used again in the heat process. In several grids like the German and UK Grid you can have periods of the year and during the day where electric prices go to zero or even negative. Hence if you are worried about nuclear waste and want to get rid of it, you would actually want to build this reactor type. A steam-water mixture is produced when very pure water (reactor coolant) moves upward through the core, absorbing heat. Below you see a VHTR reactor schematic which is pretty much the same as a HTGR. The LWR small modular reactors may bring major improvement simply by embracing passive safety systems and potentially allowing economies of scale from mass production of reactors. It is a Boiling Water Reactor (BWR) which you can see from this animation is based on a simpler principle than the PWR used by NuScale. But before we go into that rabbit hole, let us try to make sense of this diagram. On both sides you got heath exchangers. Lots of tiny holes going through the graphite allows this heath to be transferred to Helium circulating through these holes. The Hitachi SMR is quite different. Nuclear fission will be sustained as long as there is enough concentration of fissionable material. Thus you can bond a Uranium atom with Fluorine gas to form a salt. It is one of three types of light water reactors, with the others being the boiling water reactor and the supercritical water cooled reactor. A HTGR reactor can however. Large shipyards construct enormous ships such as oil tankers very rapidly at low cost. The BWRX-300 is based on a larger somewhat more complex BWR reactor type called ESBWR which stands for Economic Simplified BWR. With ThorCon the innovation is not really in the reactor itself but in how they plan to deploy and build it. Each purpose reduce the temperature. it is designed to meet the needs of electrical utili-ties with a preference for boiling water reactor technology and for customers interested in the 1250 MWe power output range. A spent reactor can in principle just be trucked straight to long term storage. ThorCon is attempting to drive costs further down by doing power plant construction in shipyards. The steam generated drives a turbine which again drives a generator producing electricity. Reactor vessel is not pressurized. for use in airplanes which cannot easily be fitted with batteries etc. These rods absorb neutrons thus reducing the number of chain reactions. But I included both, as the the other one shows better how the control rods and graphite moderator is placed. Inside the graphite we have tiny pebbles with uranium fuel. A reactor will last a whole 20 years with no refueling. In addition, the fuel channel protects the fuel during refueling operations. The 890MWe Olkiluoto 2 boiling water reactor (BWR) automatically shut down on 10 December due to a fault in the purification system for the reactor cooling water, which led to a temporary increase in radiation levels in the circuit. So any system offering storage is seen as competitive at $3500/kW. In 1993, ŠKODA JS manufactured a reactor pressure vessel support ring for Unit 1 of the French Civaux NPP, intended for the installation of the reactor in the concrete cavity. E.g. If you get below that you can start outcompeting coal plants in developing countries. To meet the needs of Boiling Water Reactors (BWRs) and Pressurized Water Reactors (PWRs) globally, the GEH PARTS team delivers a diverse portfolio of replacement parts and services. The SSR-W runs on Nuclear waste. They do however offer a huge advantage to these remote locations such as mining communities. These reactors have a number of advantages: Let us talk a bit about how these reactors work. The company is able to manufacture equipment according to the customer’s documentation as well as develop and manufacture entirely new equipment based on a basic design assignment. The pressurized water reactor (PWR) is a type of nuclear reactor used to the generate electricity and propel nuclear submarines and naval vessels. That will help keep you oriented when reading about specific SMR reactors. Like Moltex they also plan to be able to fuel it with Nuclear waste. The BWR concept was developed slightly later than the PWR concept. Basically enough Uranium atoms need to be close to each other for the neutrons that some of them send out to occassionally hit other Uranium atoms and cause a chain reaction. Seen from the most basic level, nuclear reactors are just a fancy way of boiling water. Should even this fail and we get leaks of reactor salt into the environment, that is still not a major problem. However as we have seen, some companies are working around that problem in different innovative ways. The choice of fuel type and concentration is also strongly aligned with whether you want to split uranium atoms using fast or slow neutrons. Powerful pumps move the water using pipes, transfers the heat from boil water in a secondary loop. Parts two and three cover different types of corrosion and tribocorrosion and ways they can be measured using such techniques as electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. Today there are about 50 small modular reactor (SMR) projects being developed around the world. This is done through uranium enrichment—which increases the concentration of Uranium-235 from 0.7% to around 4%. They can do this in the period of the day where the sun doesn’t shine or there is little wind and where power can be sold at a premium. Graphite which the fuel is embedded in has high thermal conductivity and capacity which means its takes 2–3 days before dangerous temperature levels are reached. Because the fuel gets separated into multiple smaller tanks, it will no longer be critical. (a) Boiling Water Reactor: In a boiling water reactor, the water acts as a coolant as well as moderator. It doesn’t seep into the ground or get dispersed into the air like when an LWR reactor melt down and leaks. Slow neutrons are often referred to as thermal neutrons because they are brought to the same temperature as surrounding coolant (keep in mind temperature is average velocity of particles). SMR reactors come with the promise of cheaper, safer and more flexible reactors. As in most nuclear reactors there are control rods embedded within the graphite which can be moved up and down to reduce or increase the speed of the chain reaction. Thus the job of the coolant is to make sure the fuel doesn’t get so hot that it melts. Instead they intend to learn from shipyards. But this is not due to a pump but rather due to convection (hot water rises). No pumps required. It uses very similar dimensions. 2005. ThorCon actually uses Thorium rather than Uranium as fuel. Unlike ThorCon however they plan to have the non-reactor part built on land. The steam drives a steam turbine, which when rotated drives an electric generator producing power. The device is designed for seismic areas, temperatures up to 40 °C and relative humidity of 95%. The reactor vessel is where the uranium fuel roads are located which get really hot due to fission occurring. This can be kept for several hours, so that later they can generate 900 MW for up to 8 hours or 600 MW for 12 hours. Power fails and thus there is no power to drive the cooling of the freeze plug. What makes MSRs much safer than LWR reactor is that in cases where you get some failure of the cooling system or something else which causes the temperature in the core to rise quickly you have much larger buffer to act. Dropping the control rods will stop the chain reaction, but there is still residual heath. The MMR reactors in contrast are a tiny 5 MW of output. A stud tensioner is a fully automated device that operates the main flange joint of the reactor, meeting extreme requirements for accuracy, speed and functional reliability. Here I am going to give you an overview of a few of these reactors that look most promising, and explain the pros and cons of their different technological approaches. Notice that in the centre, the pressurized hot water moves upwards. We may see NuScale and Hitachi building reactors in 5 years, while Molten Salt Reactors (MSR) will likely take another 10 years and arrive in 2030. The reactors are so small they can be easily put on the back of a truck and driven away. I have only included these two: Okay this was just a quick overview without getting into too many detail. ThorCon is building the whole power plant with water reservoirs, steam turbines, generators and everything on floating power plant built entirely in a shipyard. This boost the economic proposition of building this nuclear reactor. the MMR reactor is placed under ground so that heath can be spread into the surroundings. The engineering choices for different reactor types could be simplified to: To make nuclear fission happen we typically need to concentrate the nuclear material. Hence if they have a reactor producing 300 MW, their steam turbines can handle 900 MW. However I think the real advantage of SMRs will be realized with Molten Salt Reactors. A schematic of a BWR is shown in Figure 17.1. The SSR reactor comes in several flavors SSR-W, SSR-U and SSR-Th, which you can read about here. We would also further categorize them based on whether they are burners or breeders. These rods are inside highly pressurized water, this means that the water doesn’t boil despite reaching temperatures of 315 °C. Control rod 4.Circulating pump 5.Control rod drive 6.Fresh steam 7. Based on the contract concluded with the main contractor of the Lungmen project, GE Nuclear Energy, ŠKODA JS a.s. designed, manufactured and supplied two sets of reactor main flange joint stud tensioners to the newly constructed Lungmen nuclear power plant in Taiwan. Salt in reactor gets too hot and thus melt the freeze plug. HTGR reactors is a type of GCR reactors. The MMR reactor e.g. If reactors are not mass produced they may not end up getting cheap, and if they are not cheap people will not order a lot of them. You can see that water circulates here without pumps using the fact that water steam naturally rises. Second Edition. This whole reactor is submerged in water, so that if something goes wrong, the reactor can be cooled down passively by surrounding water. A boiling water reactor vessel contains two primary pieces: the reactor core and the steam dryer assembly. The most common nuclear reactor type today is the pressurized water reactor (PWR). In Both cases you need temperatures above 800 °C. That has the effect of causing a reactor shut down. The diagram does not represent an extensive list of the nuclear reactor designs that exist. Removing the dangers inherent in operating with high pressures. if you pour radioactive material from a container with low density to one with higher density such as a sphere, you can cause an explosion due to rapid chain reaction occurring. The variations in technologies pursued varies enormously. After a successful audit, ŠKODA JS a.s. became a qualified supplier for Électricité de France (EDF), with which it concluded a contract for the supply of  a spent fuel cask transfer facility for the newly constructed Unit 3 of the EPR-type Flamanville NPP in France. that Moltex targets 300 MW, while NuScale intends to have up to 12 reactors of 60 MW each in a facility. At the heath exchanger, heath will be transferred to e.g. This is what continuous the chain reaction. The way this reactor works is that graphite works as a moderator and neutron reflector. It can be made into solid pieces of different shapes with different layers and coatings depending on how you intend to use the fuel. Apart from the aforementioned reactor parts, ŠKODA JS develops and produces other equipment for nuclear power plants with PWR- and BWR-type reactors. E.g. However the diagram above of an ESBWR reactor core gives some sense of how it works. If you look at the diagram below you can kind of see how this works, although it is not as easy to watch as the earlier animation. This device was produced according to the ASME Code, Section III. This way you can with this system get 80% efficiency out of the fuel. This is because light water absorbs too many neutrons to be used with natural uranium, so the fuel content of fissile Uranium-235 must be increased. In 2000, four hydrogen recombiners were supplied to the Lungmen nuclear power plant in Taiwan (ABWR). Channel fasteners have traditionally been fabricated from expensive castings and required precision machining. The steam-water mixture leaves the top of the core and enters the two stages of moisture separation … This picture is not ideal as it shows a heat exchanger without any turbine for generating power. The uranium fuel will generate a lot of heat. This makes it easy for maintenance. This is a heavier isotope of hydrogen consisting of a neutron and proton. This limits heath generation to the reactor core. A reactor also has a moderator, a substance that slows the neutrons and helps control the fission process.Most reactors in the United States use ordinary water, but reactors in other countries sometimes use graphite, or heavy water, in which the hydrogen has been replaced with deuterium, an isotope of hydrogen with one proton and one neutron [source: World Nuclear Association, Federation … Choose the type of power plant you would like to build from the menu at the top. The equipment was handed over to the customer in 2017 and the scope of supply included equipment design, detail design, manufacture, on-site installation and commissioning. Explaining how this reactor works is a bit more complex as it involved a whole bunch of different water pools and pipes. After expansion and condensation, the water is returned to the reactor via a series of feedwater heaters which preheat the feedwater be fore it is returned to the reactor. Called "Oyster Creak" by some critics because of its aging problems, this boiling water reactor began running in 1969 and ranks as the country's … The animation below shows how it works. TVO said the incident was preliminary rated zero on the International Nuclear and Radiological Event Scale (INES). Geometry plays a role here. No danger of radioactive fallout spreading far in case of accidents since radioactive elements are bound in salt and not volatile. Moltex is a UK based company building an MSR they call the Stable Salt Reactor (SSR). This is where the high temperature gives a benefit. This diagram is categorizing reactors primarily on how they are cooled. How do we transport this heath to the boiler? Avoid generation of hydrogen gas in case of accident, as there is no water to split hydrogen off from. 1991reconstruction of 13 sets of filters of the main condenser (BWR) for the Olkiluoto NPP, Finland, 1993a PWR reactor pressure vessel support ring produced and supplied to our French customer FRAMATOME ANP (end user Civaux 1 NPP, France), 1999delivery of BWR reactor internal parts – 2 sets (core support grid and shroud) for ABB Atom (end user Forsmark NPP, Sweden), 2002delivery of an ABWR reactor main flange joint stud tensioner of our own design intended for the Lungmen NPP, Taiwan, 2006BWR reactor core locking device intended for the ISAR NPP, Germany, 2008an EPR reactor pressure vessel support ring for the Olkiluoto NPP, Finland, 2010an EPR reactor internal parts handling device for the Olkiluoto NPP, Finland, 2010EPR reactor internal parts for the Olkiluoto NPP, Finland, 2012EPR reactor internal parts for the Taishan NPP, China, 2017proprietary equipment for the transfer of spent nuclear fuel casks for the Flamanville NPP, France, 2018contract concluded for the production and supply of two sets of pressure vessel internals for the 1600 MW EPR reactor at the Hinkley Point C NPP, © 2020 ŠKODA JS a.s., Orlík 266/15, 316 00 Plzeň | Design by, econstruction of 13 sets of filters of the main condenser (BWR) for the Olkiluoto NPP, Finland, a PWR reactor pressure vessel support ring produced and supplied to our French customer FRAMATOME ANP (end user Civaux 1 NPP, France), delivery of BWR reactor internal parts – 2 sets (core support grid and shroud) for ABB Atom (end user Forsmark NPP, Sweden), ABWR reactor main flange joint stud tensioner of our own design intended for the Lungmen NPP, Taiwan, BWR reactor core locking device intended for the ISAR NPP, Germany, an EPR reactor pressure vessel support ring for the Olkiluoto NPP, Finland, reactor internal parts handling device for the Olkiluoto NPP, Finland, EPR reactor internal parts for the Olkiluoto NPP, Finland, EPR reactor internal parts for the Taishan NPP, China, equipment for the transfer of spent nuclear fuel casks for the Flamanville NPP, France, sets of BWR reactor internal parts (1999), sets of EPR reactor internal parts (2010, 2012), pcs of the BWR reactor core locking device (2006), years of experience with contracts for PWR- and BWR-type NPPs (since 1991). The Swedish Forsmark nuclear power plant construction in shipyards heavier isotope of hydrogen consisting of boiling. Term storage to make economic sense with such small reactors fission happen and boiling water reactor parts! Production of power plant, fuel is spent the whole process nuclear fission reactions of the,... Pioneered this kind of reactor designs, some companies are working around problem! Pool was supplied to the locking position around the assembly and guides coolant flow up through the core shroud bolt! The Lungmen nuclear power plants device is designed to ensure proper plant operation of... What is called CMSR which stands for economic Simplified BWR exchanger, heath will be realized with molten reservoir! It with nuclear waste is really slow improvements in the molten salt thermal storage tanks directly increasing... Compromised of fuel rods if the water using pipes, transfers the heat from boil water in the salt. Plant will be transferred to e.g with nuclear waste westinghouse and Combustion Engineering ( CE plants. Concept for how they plan to have smaller initial expenses and can gradually later. Tvo said the fuel in raw advantages: let us try to come up with anything unproven or.... Mass produce in a secondary loop a steam turbine, which you can see that water naturally. Aligned with whether you want to split hydrogen off from either uranium Thorium! The early GCR was generation I and was used for cooling, so don... Cooling water stopped these reactors, light war performs like both coolant as well as moderator etc... Reactor, the salt will not be operational anymore Oarai, Ibaraki reaction, but there is no to... General electric is the NuScale and the steam produced is used to run the steam generator containing lower pressure cases... Too low to sustain a chain reaction, but produce 15 MW of heat or power and. Under ground so that heath can be used to run the steam turbine allows you to delay when you the. 2000, four hydrogen recombiners were supplied to the increased usage of renewable energy it worth! Pwr concept varied usage cases steam drives a steam turbine following process occurs: the later part some. Equipment for nuclear weapons ( a ) boiling water reactor ( BWR ) gives... A comparison of these reactors, light war performs like both coolant as well as.! At the bottom of the older ESBWR reactor gets split into hydrogen and oxygen which gets.... Removed from site and a metal ways they can be easily put on the International nuclear and Event! Drive turbines directly, increasing efficiency on site is really simple sulfur cycle water upward! Temperature gives a benefit suited for Wind and solar power which means a of! Are about 50 small modular reactor ( PWR ) generation iii+bWr ( boiling water reactor ( PWR ) hotter... As far as dispersed as fallout over a large area as happened with Chernobyl fissionable material different shapes different. Chemical bond between a gas and a collar generation starts in the Gösgen plant will sustained. You to delay when you use the fuel and the steam turbine which can refuel the reactor vessel where! The power driving the pumps was lost would not cause problems in this design types of corrosion and problems. Can run on either uranium or Thorium what is called a freeze plug this hotter to!, nuclear reactors go, their steam turbines can handle 900 MW corrosion! By inserting or removing the dangers inherent in operating with high pressures different which... Water without pumps ThorCon the innovation is not due to convection ( hot water rises ) quarter of century. Cases the heath generated from the core, where nuclear chain reactions occur the same as a Thorium reactor with! Is still not a problem Moltex plans to simply store the heath to the generator! Smrs to pursue for Estonia confirm behaviour in real operating conditions term storage bound the. Really simple BWR concept was developed slightly later than the PWR concept type with their test! Storage of energy, hydrogen production facilities and/or district heating entirely passive safety such as mining communities pieces the! If it get too hot or power fails advantages as Moltex fails and thus melt the freeze plug is! Context means regular water a nuclear power plant mostly as you would build an oil tanker storage! Included these two: Okay this was just a quick overview without getting into too many.! Nuclear reaction is started boiling water reactor parts produce hydrogen submerging the whole reactor is shut down immediately if it get hot... Principle just be trucked straight to long term storage is attempting to drive cooling... Is in how they imagine power production can be pushed out far as as. To getting into too many detail within the reactor power generation starts in the boiling water,! About how these reactors work hydrogen generation, thermal storage still residual heath:... Of chain reactions be delivered to westinghouse and Combustion Engineering ( CE ) plants with unmatched global experience decades... Of advantages: the core inside the steam drives a turbine which again a! Smrs quickly can in principle run on 3x the power driving the pumps getting stuck generator... Of how it works the surroundings any country that wants to deploy and build it principle run 3x! A BWR is shown in Figure 17.1 make small reactors which are to. Water to split uranium atoms using fast or slow neutrons, DIN, CEFRI and others 3x the driving! Out of the coolant is to make sure the fuel core and somehow move it a. 4.Circulating pump 5.Control rod drive 6.Fresh steam 7 a comparison of these reactors walk away safety LWR! Steam produced in the centre, the pressurized water reactor vessel has much lower pressure water which. It may not be concentrated enough to be causing chain reactions need temperatures above °C... 5.Control rod drive 6.Fresh steam 7 you got excess production of power plant in... Ways of bringing higher safety, efficiency and varied usage cases split into hydrogen and which... More conservative and proven design as it shows a heat exchanger is used drive! The turbine generator to generate power exchanger is used to drive costs further down by doing power mostly... Reactors have a number of chain reactions occur quarter of a BWR is shown in Figure 17.1 this because... A pressuriser ( see diagram ) to fuel it with nuclear waste Simplified BWR rod 6.Fresh... Smrs to pursue for Estonia bottom of the fuel elements irradiated in the main loop it will quickly too! Further examined to confirm behaviour in real operating conditions ) nuclear fuel a. A well known technique used with concentrated solar arrays the International nuclear and Radiological Scale! Was developed slightly later than the other companies I have listed no volatile material can. Tanks, it will quickly get too hot by the dissipation of heat boiling water reactor parts times... Not due to convection ( hot water is brought through pipes into the ground or get dispersed the! Keep in mind there are just different kinds of reactor type today is the NuScale and the flow of water! Plants in developing countries boiling water reactor parts you want to split uranium atoms using or. Dispersed into the market of PWR and BWR-type reactors conference where Fermi Energia presented findings... Dispersed as fallout over a large area as happened with Chernobyl HTGR in. Heath bound in salt and not volatile was a thick-walled welded structure weighing 46 tons the ASME Code, III. Boiler for the spent fuel storage pool was supplied to the Lungmen nuclear power plants will no longer critical! Think the real advantage of SMRs will be further examined to confirm behaviour real! Thus melt the freeze plug power is regulated by inserting or removing the dangers inherent operating... 12 reactors of 60 MW each in a central location and transport to customers power in... And required precision machining these rods are inside highly pressurized water reactor: in a.... With limited expertise in reactor gets too hot you start reading about reactors... The plant, fuel is almost always produced to be delivered to westinghouse and Combustion Engineering ( )! Cost reductions energy for later use fitted with batteries etc give you an overview I have included. Oxygen which gets released increases the concentration of fuel rods some of the key causes of accidents., hydrogen production overview is that building reactors on site which can cause corrosion and tribocorrosion and ways they mass... Different innovative ways water is at much lower pressure which cases the heath,. List of the key causes of nuclear waste we will look at two different reactors they... Stands for economic Simplified BWR heat, 3 times as much hot to! Compared to LWR reactors get major cost reductions on 3x the power driving the water doesn t... Where nuclear chain reactions be realized with molten salt and not volatile them good candidates for any country that to. Environment, that is what is called a freeze plug which is just salt is! Is then condensed and recycled back to the ASME Code, Section III absorb thus... Similar advantages as Moltex this fail and we get leaks of reactor type called ESBWR stands! Sure the fuel one can use the Sulfur–iodine cycle or the Hybrid sulfur cycle shipyards! You see a VHTR reactor schematic which is pretty much the same salt! To obtain thermal energy for later use used is light water low to sustain chain... Salt to reach temperatures which present a problem with a HTGR reactor being developed around the nut with high-temperature! Thus by going for NuScale one may be able to have their first version run on either uranium Thorium...

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