Provisions for food and water were also made available at the stations.  However, Muhammad bin Tughluq was also known for his tolerance to other religions, several historians mention that the Sultan honoured the Jain monk Jinaprabha Suri during the year 1328. In spite of high qualification and knowledge, Sultan Muhamad-bin- Tughlaq suffered from certain qualities of hastiness and impatience that is why many of his experiments failed and he has been called an ill starred idealist. Partly with their help and partly from his own kingdom, Tughluq raised an army of possibly up to 370,000 soldiers in 1329. However, according to Barani, the taxation was raised by ten to twenty times more, while Gardner Brown said that the rise in taxation was normal. Records show that the use of token currency has stopped in 1333 as Ibn Battuta who came to Delhi in 1334 and wrote a journal made no mention of this currency. Moreover, coins minted in Daulatabad around 1333, showed that Daulatabad was "the second capital".  Muhammad ascended to the Delhi throne upon his father's death in 1325. Khidki Mosque is square in shape and to add to its strength there are four reclining ‘Burz’ in all its four corners, in Begampuri mosque there is artistic use of marble. Muhammad Bin Tughlaq was one of the most remarkable and interesting ruler of the Tughlaq dynasty. MOHAMMAD BIN TUGHLUQ 1. also contributed to the downfall of the Turkish Sultanate of Delhi. He was deeply read in … Muhammad-bin-Tughlaq (1325-51): Also called Jauna Khan. ADVERTISEMENTS: The below mentioned article provides a biography of Muhammad Bin Tughluq. SUBMITTED TO: 2.  He was ambitious of annexing these kingdoms. Achievements of Firoz Shah Firoz Shah Tughlaq worked majorly for development of infrastructure in his kingdom. The fortifications were two yards in thickness and were constructed of rough rubble in lime. He was the son of Turk Ghiyas-ud-din, the founder of the Tughluq dynasty that replaced Khilji rule in Delhi, and succeeded his father upon his death. In the Kali Masjid there are two storeys. Muhammad Tughluq in the beginning of his reign increased taxation in the Doab; on this measure of the Sultan Dr. AL Srivastava wrote that the Sultan desired to raise the revenue by five to ten percentonly and that too not by house-tax and grazing tax. in Indian history. During the first two years of his reign, Muhammad Tughlaq founded the small Fortress of Adilabad. Ibn Battuta has also written that he depended on his own judgment and rarely took advice from others and has also criticized him for his giving of excessive gifts and "harsh punishments". Khidki Masjid and Begampuri Masjid are in Jahanpanah. This tomb is locally known as ‘Lai Gumbad.’ Except above important buildings, many hunting places for Sultan were built. During the time of Firoz Shah Tughlaq, the characteristics of Tughlaq architecture, the real reclining walls, were abandoned completely. Organised better postal system He was a great Reintroduced the food laws of Ala-ud-Din 2.  Ibn Battuta mentions that the king of China (the Yuan Emperor) had sent an embassy to Muhammad for reconstruction of a sacked temple at Sambhal. This is how his empire collapsed. Muhammad bin Tughlaq realized the importance of a strong and powerful army to strengthen and secure the position of the ruler. Muhammad bin tughlaq's Reforms:- He tried to introduce many administrative reforms.But most of these fails due to his impatience and lack of judgement. One of his generals would go on to form the Bahmani kingdom in the Deccan. Though Farishta might not be 100% accurate, yet it cannot be denied that he constructed many beautiful buildings. He constructed many Cities, Palaces, Madrasas, Mosques, Hospitals, Tombs, Bridges, Canals, and Baths.  another inhuman eccentricity is that decided to transfer his capital from Delhi to Devagiri, which are 600 miles apart, he then ordered the people to move back to Delhi.  Muhammad has been described as an "inhuman eccentric" with bizarre character by the accounts of visitors during his rule. His coronation ceremony was duly performed in the Red Palace of Balban. 4. Muhammad Bin Tughlaq was interested in Persian poetry, mathematics, medicine, and astronomy and Muhammad bin Tughlaq ruled over the northern parts of the Indian subcontinent and the Deccan from 1325 to 1351 AD. Muhammad bin Tughluq died in 1351 on his way to Thatta, Sindh while he was campaigning in Sindh against Taghi, a Turkish slave tribe. In the rural areas, officials like the muqaddams paid the revenue in brass and copper coins and also used the same coins to purchase arms and horses. Fearing that the sultanate's northern borders were exposed to attacks, in 1335, he decided to shift the capital back to Delhi, allowing the citizens to return to their previous city. Juna khan took up the title of muhammad Tughluq. According to 19th Century CE British historian Stanley Lane-Poole, apparently courtesans had hailed Tughluq as a "man of knowledge" and had an interest in subjects like philosophy, medicine, mathematics, religion, Persian and Urdu/Hindustani poetry. [unreliable source?]. Critics called him master of opposite or Wisest fool or Wonder of creation. It is a square building whose walls is very strong and is decorated with various flowers, leaves etc. This was followed by a revolt in Bengal. He remained at Tughluqabad for forty days and then entered Delhi […]  Ibn Battuta, the famous traveler and jurist from Morocco, was a guest at his court and wrote about his suzerainty in his book. He was born in Multan. [additional citation(s) needed] Critics have called him hasty in nature, owing to most of his experiments failing due to lack of preparation.  Though Sultan dynasties that arose after Tughluq campaigned outside Delhi all ruled northern India stretching into modern-day Pakistan and Afghanistan. The Tughlaq dynasty experienced many revolts by Muslim nobility, particularly during Muhammad bin Tughlaq but also during other rulers such as Firoz Shah Tughlaq. He invited nobles and leaders from these regions and gave them grants. A well-read scholar of the arts, theology, and philosophy, a brilliant calligraphist, a mystic, as well as a poet, it is the 'madness' that earned him the epithet 'Mad Muhammad', that Karnad explores in the play. Muhammad Bin Tughlaq was one of the most interesting personalities of Medieval Indian history. He needed additional revenue to increase military resources.  He was famous because whenever a gift was bestowed upon him, he would give gifts worth three times the value to show his stature. In his reign, he conquered Warangal (in present-day Telangana, India) Malabar and Madurai (Tamil Nadu, India), and areas up to the modern day southern tip of the Indian state of Karnataka. Historian Ishwari Prasad writes that different coins of different shapes and sizes were produced by his mints which lacked the artistic perfection of design and finish. Grants were also given by Tughluq to the immigrants. If not for Tughlaq's creation of a Muslim elite at Daulatabad, there would have been no stable Muslim power like the Bahmani empire to check the rising power of the Hindu Vijayanagaris. In the process, many died on the road due to hunger and exhaustion.  They were paid in one year advance, and after being kept idle for one year, Tughluq found it difficult to pay them. While on his way to suppress the rebellion, there was an outbreak of bubonic plague at Bidar due to which Tughluq himself became ill, and many of his soldiers died. The area of Firozshah Kotla is double that of Shahjananabad. Táríkh-i Fíroz Sháhí, of Ziauddin Barani", The History of India, as Told by Its Own Historians. , While most of the Medieval historians, including Barani and Ibn Battuta, tend to have implied that Delhi was entirely emptied (as is famously mentioned by Barani that not a dog or cat was left), it is generally believed that this is just an exaggeration.
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